On This Day in Napoleonic History – 25 March 1802

25Peace of Amiens between France and Britain is signed

Amiens was chosen for the occasion because Henry VIII and Francois I had signed a peace treaty there in 1527 and it was seen as a good omen. Under the treaty, Britain was to restore to France, Spain and Holland nearly all the territories captured since 1793, including the Cape of Good Hope, Dutch Guiana, Tobago, Martinique, St Lucia, Menorca and Pondicherry, retaining only Trinidad and Ceylon. Britain was also to evacuate Elba, return Malta to the Knights of St John and Egypt to the Ottoman Empire. France was required to evacuate Naples and the Papal States.

The treaty was a triumph for France. The whole of France’s overseas empire was returned at the cost of parts of Italy. The only territories gained by Britain were Trinidad and Ceylon, neither of which had belonged to France. Despite the inequality of the Treaty of Amiens, Britain rejoiced and there were celebrations in the street. There was a great change in the tone of the government papers. Suddenly, the Corsican adventurer was referred to as the August hero and the restorer of peace, which had some truth to it because within a year Napoleon had made peace with Austria, Russia, Turkey and Britain.

On the conclusion of the Peace of Amiens, around 5000 British citizens descended on Paris. Commenting on the numbers of French arriving in Britain, the naturalist James Smithson remarked that, should they continue this way for a little bit longer, the two countries were likely to completely exchange their inhabitants.

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 23 March 1801

Paul I23 is assassinated

Assassination of the Russian Tsar Paul III at the hands of a group of Russian nobles came as a blow to Napoleon, who was hoping for a lasting alliance with Russia. Paul was mentally unstable and his policies supporting the middle class threatened the Russian nobility. Although not directly involved in the murder, Paul’s 23-year old son and heir Alexander, who was in the palace at the time, had known about it in advance. This knowledge and the fact that he stood by while his father was being assassinated was a heavy burden he was to carry through his whole life. The nobles demanded Paul’s abdication before they stabbed, strangled and kicked the Tsar to death. Alexander was crowned Tsar later that year. Although he theoretically had absolute power, he knew that he had to work with the nobility if he were to escape his father’s fate. He understood that unpopular policies, including any concessions to France, would endanger not only his crown but his life.

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 21 March 1815

Napoleon is in Paris following his return from Elba

21The previous day, his son’s 4th birthday, Napoleon arrived to Paris on his return from Elba 11 months to the day after leaving it. Since Louis XVIII fled the capital, Napoleon entered the Tuileries as de-facto Emperor of the French. He received a triumphant reception from the people.

He had achieved his aim and entered Paris without firing a shot, without spilling a drop of blood. Napoleon walked up the stairs of the Tuileries slowly, with his eyes half-closer, his arms extended before him, as if savouring every step. The headlines perfectly demonstrate the changing public opinion as Napoleon makes his way from Elba to Paris:

‘The Tiger has broken out of his den!’

The Ogre was three days at sea.’

‘The Wretch has landed at Frejus.’

‘The Brigand has arrived at Antibes.’

‘The invader has reached Grenoble.’

‘The General has entered Lyons.’

‘Napoleon slept last night at Fontainebleau.’

‘The Emperor proceeds to the Tuileries today.’

‘His Imperial Majesty will address his loyal subjects tomorrow.’

(source: Napoleon for Dummies)

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 20 March 1811

The birth of Napoleon’s son

20Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte was born at 9.20 in the morning in the Tuileries. There was a great commotion in the palace as the court and functionaries of state waited with impatience, none more so than Napoleon himself. The Emperor was in a state of great agitation. He was overheard saying to Marie Louise’s obstetrician, ‘Pretend that you are not delivering the Empress but the bourgeois from the Rue de St Denis.’ It wasn’t an easy delivery and when asked who he would want to save in the event of an emergency, the mother or the child, Napoleon replied, ‘Save the mother,’ despite everything he had to go through for an heir.

It had been announced that the birth of a daughter would be saluted with 21 guns and that of a son by 101. When the people heard the 22nd boom of the cannon, there were great celebrations in Paris. The infant was proclaimed the King of Rome, a title of the Holy Roman Empire, and was nicknamed the Eaglet by the Bonapartist propagandists. ‘My son is big and healthy,’ Napoleon wrote to Josephine. ‘I hope he will grow up well. I trust that he will fulfill his destiny.’

Napoleon was a very loving father, who was inordinately proud of the boy’s bloodline, pointing out that the boy was related to the Romanovs through his mother’s brother-in-law, to the Habsburgs through his mother, to the Hanoverians through his uncle’s wife and to the Bourbons through his mother’s great-aunt. The fact that all four families currently longed for Napoleon’s overthrow didn’t seem to lessen his joy.

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 19 March 1798

Siege of Acre

19Napoleon begins his assault on Acre, surrounding the town with fortifications and trenches. Defending the port were 4000 Afghans, Albanians and Moors, as well as Commodore Sir Sidney Smith with 200 marines. Napoleon launched no fewer than nine major and three minor attacks on Acre over the next nine weeks.

Sir Sidney Smith suggested to Napoleon to decide the fate of the city between the two of them, challenging Napoleon to a duel by the city walls. Thinking he was dealing with a lunatic, Napoleon refused with contempt, saying that he didn’t see Smith as his equal. The French were never successful in taking Acre. Soon Napoleon was describing Acre to his chief-of-staff, Louis-Alexandre Berthier, as a mere grain of sand, an indication that he was considering abandoning the siege.

On May 11 the siege was lifted by Napoleon as he decided to return to Egypt. In a deceptive letter to the Directory Napoleon wrote, ‘The season is too far advanced. The end I had in view had been accomplished. My presence is required in Egypt. I have reduced Acre to a heap of stones. I shall recross the desert.’ All the way in France, the Directory had no way of knowing the true state of events.

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 18 of March 1815

Marshal Ney joins Napoleon’s side during Hundred Days

18Although only a short while previously Michel Ney had told Louis XVIII, ‘I will bring you Bonaparte in an iron cage,’ he deflected to Napoleon’s side with almost all his troops except for a few royalist officers. Ney’s loyalties were torn and it was by no means an easy decision. When Napoleon sent a message to Ney that read, ‘Should you decide to change sides, I will receive you like I did at the morrow of the Battle of the Moskova,’ the marshal couldn’t resist following his heart instead of his head.

Although he fully intended to fight Napoleon when he left Paris, he had no wish to start a civil war and the Bonapartist sentiment among his men was too strong. He later said that he couldn’t hold off the sea with his hands. Similarly, Marshal Soult stated that only a traitor would join Napoleon. And yet, the only two marshals to fight on Napoleon’s side at the Battle of Waterloo were Ney and Soult. ‘Only the Emperor Napoleon is entitled to rule over our beautiful country,’ Ney told his men. For his loyalty to his former commander Ney would face a firing squad when the royalists returned after the fiasco of Waterloo.

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 17 March 1798

Josephine is accused of war profiteering

17Napoleon and his brother Joseph subjected Josephine to a tough interrogation that left her tearful, distressed and resentful but as deceitful as ever. Alongside her current lover Hippolyte Charles and her former lover Barras, Josephine was an investor in a firm that had long been accused of invoice manipulation, providing substandard equipment, rotting provisions and even direct horse thieving from peasants. The involvement of his wife in such shady dealings affected Napoleon’s strongest appeal to the populace – his integrity.

In her panicked letter to Charles, Josephine wrote, ‘I replied that I knew nothing about what he was saying to me. If he wished to divorce, he had only to say. He had no need to use such means and I was the most unfortunate of women and the most unhappy. Yes, my Hippolyte, they have my complete hatred. You alone have my tenderness and my love.’

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 13 March 1815

The War of the Seventh Coalition begins

13At the Congress of Vienna, following Napoleon’s return from Elba, the Great Powers of Europe (Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia) and their various smaller allies declared Napoleon an outlaw. It was the first time in history that war was declared against a particular person rather than a nation.

Over the next few weeks Napoleon would write many letters to various monarchs of Europe, asking for peace and assuring them that he had no other intention than to concentrate on his internal reforms: ‘After presenting the spectacle of great campaigns to the world, from now on it would be pleasant to know of no rivalry but that of the benefits of peace, of no other struggle but the holy conflict of the happiness of peoples.’

These letters went unanswered and often unopened. European monarchs were not interested in Napoleon’s promises but he did mean every word. After all, the people of France were exhausted after decades of constant conflict and Napoleon knew that, to stay in power, he would need to pursue a more pacific form of government.

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 12 March 1814

Napoleon is jealous of his brother Joseph

12Napoleon was told that his older brother Joseph, who was entrusted by Napoleon with the defense of Paris, was trying to seduce Napoleon’s wife Marie Louise, who acted as a regent in his absence. ‘King Joseph told some wearisome things to me,’ Marie Louise wrote to her husband. To which Napoleon replied, ‘Do not be too familiar with the King. Keep him at a distance. Do not allow him to enter your private apartments. Mistrust the King. All this depresses me rather. I need to be comforted by the members of my family but as a rule I get nothing but vexation from that quarter. On your part, however, it would be unexpected and unbearable.’ To Joseph he wrote: ‘If you want to have my throne, you can have it. But I ask you one favour: to leave me the heart and the love of the Empress.’

Was Napoleon being paranoid in his foreboding of not only a political but also personal catastrophe? He probably didn’t have reasons to worry on that particular occasion, even though Joseph stopped visiting his mistresses at the time and Marie Louise would betray him within a year with the dashing Count Adam Albert von Neipperg, whom Francis I would send to accompany her and prevent her from joining Napoleon on Elba.

On This Day in Napoleonic History – 11 March 1798

Napoleon visits the sick in Jaffa

11After the French army took Jaffa during the Egyptian campaign, many soldiers became infected with the plague. Napoleon visited the hospital and, according to one of the officers, picked up and carried a plague victim who was lying across the doorway. ‘This action scared us a lot because the sick man’s clothes were covered in foam,’ wrote the officer.

Napoleon spoke to the sick, trying to comfort and raise their morale. The incident was immortalised in 1804 in Antoine-Jean Gros’ painting ‘Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims in Jaffa’. Napoleon later said that, as general-in-chief, he believed it was part of his duty to give the sick soldiers confidence and reanimate them by visiting frequently. He claimed he had caught the disorder himself, recovering quickly, but there was no evidence to support this.